展覽名稱:「晉唐法書名蹟展」(Masterpieces of Chin and T'ang Dynasty Calligraphy)


展出日期:20081010(Fri)~20081120(Thu)


展 場:國立故宮博物院(臺灣.臺北市)陳列室202, 204, 206, 208


展覽簡介


中國書法到了三世紀的三國(220280)、西晉(265316)之際,是各書體演變完成的時期,此後楷書及行、草書應用日廣,蔚成新風氣。四世紀東晉(317420)時,書家致力於鍛練書法技藝,探究筆法中如同自然妙有的美感,追求「工夫」與「天然」並美,古體與今體兼備,以達於盡善盡美的境界。其中尤以「書聖」王羲之(303361)最具典型。


南朝(420-589)至隋唐(581-907),由帝王主導,進行王羲之等名家書蹟的收藏鑑定、編次裝帙及摹寫刻石,建立了以王羲之為模範的古典傳統。中唐以後,典雅精緻的宮廷書風轉變,平民書家在書法創作中,加入富於個人魅力的技藝表現,士人書家則著重於情性的表達,書家的人格、學識與修養成為書法藝術的重要評價內容,為後世士人書法開啟了新的契機。


不過晉唐書蹟歷經千餘年流傳,因人為與時空因素,至今已十分稀少,本次特展完整展出院藏十五件題為晉唐人墨蹟,另配合展出兩件相關拓本。其中唐摹〈快雪時晴帖〉冊、〈平安何如奉橘帖〉卷與〈遠宦帖〉卷等三件名蹟首次同時展出,為王羲之楷、行、草的典型代表作。傳承王羲之草書的孫過庭〈書譜〉卷(678),是一件詞翰、理論與書法藝術並重的長篇傑作,為讓觀眾深入瞭解並觀察孫過庭書寫與流傳歷程,本次特別展出針對筆墨、紙張、改寫的光學檢測圖像。此外,後人評為天下行書第二(僅次於蘭亭序)的顏真卿〈祭姪文稿〉卷(758),唐代狂草藝術極致的懷素〈自敘帖〉卷(777),有神祕色彩的才女吳彩鸞(活動於九世紀)的〈唐韻〉冊,都是流傳有緒,在書法史上具有代表性的烜赫名蹟。


 


In Chinese calligraphy, the third century CE--corresponding to the Three Kingdoms (220-280) and Western Chin (265-316) period--witnessed the maturation of various script forms. Thereafter, applications for regular, running, and cursive scripts became increasingly widespread, flourishing to form a new trend. During the fourth century in the Eastern Chin dynasty (317-420), calligraphers thereupon strove to forge writing as an art form as they explored how to make brush strokes more natural and aesthetically pleasing. Pursuing the dual beauties of “skill” and “naturalness,” both ancient and modern forms of writing were combined to achieve a realm of utmost beauty and perfection in calligraphy. The most typical representative of this trend was Wang Hsi-chih (303-361), who was praised as the “Sage of Calligraphy” by later generations.


In the era from the Southern Dynasties (420-589) to the Sui (581-618) and T'ang (618-907) dynasties, the emperor played a leading role in the connoisseurship and collection, organization and mounting, and copying and carving in stone of masterpieces by such renowned calligraphers as Wang Hsi-chih, who consequently became lauded as a model for the classical tradition of calligraphy. From the middle T'ang period thereafter, the refined and sophisticated style of court calligraphy changed as calligraphers from the commoner class increasingly added a technical flair as a form of personal embellishment to their writing. Scholar-calligraphers in particular emphasized the expression of emotions, so personal character, learning, and cultivation became important elements for critically evaluating calligraphy, establishing a new turning point that served as a foundation for later scholar-calligraphy.


It has now been more than a thousand years since Chin and T'ang works of calligraphy were created. Unfortunately, the vagaries of time and history have left very few traces of these fragile works today. This special exhibition from the National Palace Museum collection nonetheless includes a complete display of fifteen works inscribed as by Chin and T'ang calligraphers along with two related rubbings. One of the highlights is the simultaneous display of three renowned T'ang copies of Wang Hsi-chih's “Timely Clearing after Snowfall,” “P'ing-an, Ho-ju, and Feng-chü,” and “Yüan-huan” for the first time, providing a rare opportunity to view classic representatives of Wang Hsi-chih's regular, running, and cursive script. Another masterpiece in the Museum collection, Sun Kuo-t'ing's “Essay on Calligraphy” (678), uniquely combines the finest of writing, theory, and calligraphy all in one long handscroll. This special exhibit also features images from a meticulous investigation of the work's brush and ink, paper, and retouching, offering more detailed information on the process of writing and transmission over the ages than ever before. Heralded by later generations as the second most important work of running script calligraphy (after Wang Hsi-chih's “Preface to the Orchid Pavilion Gathering”) is the Museum's “Draft of a Requiem to My Nephew” by Yen Chen-ch'ing (758), also on display along with the world-famous virtuoso piece of so-called “wild cursive” script by the monk Huai-su entitled “Autobiography” (777) and the album “T'ang Rhymes” by the mysterious female adept Wu Ts'ai-luan (fl. 9th c.). All with an established pedigree, they stand out as calligraphy of fame and prestige, serving as representatives of this crucial era in the formation of the foundations of Chinese calligraphy for all to study and appreciate.


 


中国書法の各書体は、いろいろ変遷を経て、ほぼ三世紀の三国(220280)‧西晋(265316)頃に完成しました。その後楷書‧行書‧草書は、ともに応用の範囲を広め、新しい風潮を展開しました。四世紀の東晋(317420)時代に、書家は書法の技術を研究し、筆法の中でにある自然に流れる美を究め、工夫をこらした努力と自然な筆遣いとが相まった美しさを追求し、古体と今体ともに兼ね備えた最も美しい書の境地に到達しました。その中で「書聖」王羲之(303361)は最も典型的な書家だといえます。


南朝(420589)より隋唐(581-いたる907)に至る間に、帝王の指図のもとで、王羲之らの名跡の収蔵と鑑定、その時代別の順序の組立てに応じた装幀や模写、石刻などがなされ、王羲之を模範とした古典的伝統を建てるに至りました。中唐以後、優雅で細緻な宮廷の書風はだんだんと変化が興り、平民書家は書法創作の中に個人の魅力を発揮した技術を表現し、また士人書家は個人的感情に重きをなした表現するようになり、当時の書法芸術に対する評価は、書家の人格、学識と教養を含めた内容をともに重視するようになりました。このため後世の士人書法は新しい局面を迎えることになりました。


しかし、晋唐の名跡は千余年もの歳月の流れの中で、人為的または時間や空間の変化によって、今ではわずかな数しか残らないのが実情です。このたびの特展は、当博物院所蔵の晋唐人の墨跡と題された15点を完全に展示するとともに、関連ある拓本と絵画各2点をも一緒に展示しました。その中、唐代に模写した<快雪時晴帖>冊と<平安何如奉橘帖>巻、並びに<遠宦帖>巻の三名跡は王羲之の楷‧行‧草の典型的代表作で、博物院初めての王羲之の名跡3点の同時展観という快挙であります。王羲之の草書を伝承した孫過庭の<書譜>巻(678年の書)は、文章、理論及び書法芸術ともに重きをなした長篇の傑作であります。このたびの展覧と相まって、観覧者が孫過庭のこの書を書いた経過、及び本作品の伝承の過程をより深くご理解できますよう、その筆墨、紙質と書き換えた部分などについて、光学的検査を行い、その結果の写真もご参考として一緒に展示しました。この他、後世に天下の行書第二(蘭亭序にわずかに次ぐ)、と評価された顔真卿の<祭姪文稿>巻(758年の書)と唐代狂草芸術の極致とうたわれた懐その<自叙帖>巻(777年の書)や神秘的色彩を帯びた才女呉彩鸞(約九世紀頃に活躍)の<唐韻>冊など、それぞれ由緒ある作品で、書法史上ともに輝かしい代表的な名跡であります。


網址及展品選件:http://www.npm.gov.tw/exh97/chintang/


 

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南國島夷:古代東亞與中國中古研究

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